Return to Index

Adams-Curtis, L.E. (1987) Social context of manipulative behaviour in Cebus apella. American Journal of Primatology 12:325.

Allen, C., "Animal cognition and animal minds," in P. Machamer & M. Carrier (eds.) (1997) Philosophy and the Sciences of the Mind: Pittsburgh University Press and the UniversitŠtsverlag Konstanz: pp. 227-243.

Allen, C., and Bekoff, M. (1997) Species of Mind. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Anderson, J. R. (1983) Responses to mirror image stimulation and assessment of self-recognition in mirror- and peer-reared stumptail macaques. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 35(b):201-212.


Anderson, J. R. & Roeder, J. J. (1989) Responses of capuchin monkeys to different conditions of mirror-image stimulation. Primates, 30:581-587.

Armstrong, Susan and Botzler, Richard G. Animal Ethics Reader. London: Routledge.

Beck, B.B. (1976) Tool use by captive pigtaied monkeys. Primates 17:301-310.

Beckoff, M., and D. Jameison. (1996). Readings in Animal Cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Bennett, J. (1988). Thoughtful brutes. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 62: 196 - 211.

Bickerton, D. (1990) Language and Species. University of Chicago Press.

Byrne, R. W. (1993) The evolution of intelligence. In: Behaviour and Evolution, eds. P. J. B. Slater & T. R. Halliday. Cambridge University Press.

Byrne, R. W. & Tomasello, M. (1995) Do rats ape? Animal Behaviour, 50: 1417-1420.

Calhoun, S. & Thompson, R. L. (1988) Long-term retention of self-recognition by chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 15:361-365.

Chalmers, David. 1999. Bibliography on Animal cognition.

Chance, M. R. A. & Mead, A. P. (1953) Social behaviour and primate evolution. Symposia of Social and Experimental Biology VII:395-439.

Cheney, D. L., Seyfarth, R. M. (1980) Vocal recognition in free-ranging vervet monkeys. Animal Behaviour 288:362-367.

Cheney, D. L., Seyfarth, R. M. & Smuts, B. (1986) Social relationships and social cognition in nonhuman primates. Science, 234:1361-1366.

Cheney, D. L. & Seyfarth, R. M., eds. (1990a) How Monkeys See the World. Chicago University Press.

Cheney, D. & Seyfarth, R. (1990b) Attending to behaviour versus attending to knowledge: examining monkeys' attribution of mental states. Animal Behaviour 40:742-753.

Cheney, D. L. & Seyfarth, R. M. (1991) Truth and deception in animal communication. In: Cognitive Ethology: The Minds of Other Animals, ed. C. A.Ristau. Erlbaum.

Cheney, D. L. & Seyfarth, R. M. (1992) Precis of 'How monkeys see the world'. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15:135-182.

Custance, D. M., Whiten, A. & Bard, K. A. (1995) Can young chimpanzees imitate arbitrary actions? Hayes and Hayes (1952) revisited. Behaviour, 132, 837-859.

Dasser, V. (1988) A social concept in Java monkeys. Animal Behaviour 36:225-230.

DeGrazia, David. 1996. Taking Animals Seriously: Mental Life and Moral Status. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Dennett, D. C. (1983) Intentional systems in cognitive ethology: The "Panglossian paradigm" defended. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6:343-390.

Dennett, D. C. (1989) Cognitive ethology: Hunting for bargains or a wild goose chase. In: Goals, No-Goals and Own Goals: A Debate on Goal-Directed and Intentional Behaviour, eds. A. C. Montefiore & D. Noble. Unwin Hyman.

Dickinson, A. (1980) Contemporary animal learning theory. Cambridge University Press.

Dimond, S. & Harries, R. (1984) Face touching in monkeys, apes and man: evolutionary origins and cerebral asymmetry. Neuropsychologia 22:227-233.

Eglash, A. R. & Snowdon, C. T. (1983) Mirror-image responses in pygmy marmosets. American Journal of Primatology 5:211-219.

Epstein, R., Lanza, R. P. & Skinner, B. F. (1981) "Self-awareness" in the pigeon. Science 212:695-696.

Fragaszy, D.M. & Visalberghi, E. (1989) Social influences on the acquisition and use of tools in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Journal of Comparative Psychology 103: 159-170.

Fragaszy, D.M. & Visalberghi, R. (1990) Social processes affecting the appearance of innovative behaviors in capuchin monkeys. Folia Primatologica 3-4:54.

Frey, R.G. 1980. Interests and Rights: the case against animals. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Galef, B. G. (1988) Imitation in animals: History, definition, and interpretation of data from the psychological laboratory. In: Social learning: Psychological and biological perspectives, eds. T. R. Zentall & B. G. Galef, Jr. Erlbaum.

Galef, B. G. (1992) The question of animal culture. Human Nature 3:157-178.

Galef, B. G., Manzig, L. A. & Field, R. M. (1986) Imitation learning in budgerigars: Dawson and Foss (1965) revisited. Behavioral Processes 13:191-202.

Gallup, G. G. (1970) Chimpanzees: self-recognition. Science 167:86-87.

Gallup, G. G. (1982) Self-awareness and the emergence of mind in primates. American Journal of Primatology 2:237-248.

Gallup, G. G. (1983) Toward a comparative psychology of mind. In: Animal cognition and behavior, ed. R.E. Mellgren. Elservier

Gallup, G. G. (1985) Do minds exist in species other than our own? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 9: 631-641.

Gallup, G. G. (1988) Toward a taxonomy of mind in primates. Commentary on Whiten & Byrne. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11: 255-256.

Gallup, Jr., G. 1998. Can animals empathize? Yes. Scientific American 9: 66-71.

Gallup, G. G., McClure, M. K., Hill, S. D. & Bundy, R. A. (1971) Capacity for self-recognition in differentially reared chimpanzees. Psychological Record 21:69-74.

Gallup, G. G. & Suarez, S. D. (1991) Social responding to mirrors in rhesus monkeys: Effects of temporary mirror removal. Journal of Comparative Psychology 105:376-379.

Gallup, G. G., Povinelli, D. J., Suarez, S. D., Anderson, J. R., Lethmate, J. & Menzel, E. W. (1995) Further reflections on self-recognition in primates. Animal Behaviour, 50, 1525-1532.

Gardner, R. A. and Gardner, B. T. (1969). Teaching sign language to a chimpanzee. Science 165: 664-72.

Goldman, A. (1993) The psychology of folk psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16:15-28.

Goodall, J., ed. (1986). The chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior. Belknap Press.

Greenfield, P. M., & Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S. (1990). Grammatical combinations in pan paniscus: processes of learning and invention in the evolution and development of language. In: Language and Intelligence in Monkeys and Apes: Comparative Developmental Perspectives, ed. S. T. Parker & K. R. Gibson. Cambridge University Press.

Griffin, Donald, Colin Allen, and Marc Bekoff. 1999. Bibliography on Animal Cognition

Hayes, K. J. & Hayes, C. (1952) Imitation in a home-raised chimpanzee. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 45:450-459.

Hauser, M.D. (1988) Invention and social transmission: New data from wild vervet monkeys. In Machiavellian Intelligence eds. R. Byrne & A. Whiten. Clarendon Press.

Herman, L. M. (1987). Receptive competencies of language-trained animals, In: Advances in the Study of Behaviour, ed. J. S. Rosenblatt, C. Beer, M.C. Busnel, & P. J. B. Slater. Academic Press.

Herman, L. M. (1998) The dolphin's grammatical competency: Comments on Elements of Syntax in the Systems of Three Language-Trained Animals, E. Kako. Animal Learning and Behaviour.

Herman, L. M. Kuczaj, S. A. & Holder, M. D. (1993). Responses to anomalous gestural sequences by a language-trained dolphin: Evidence for processing of semantic relations and syntactic information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 122 (2):184-194.

Herman, L. M., Pack A. A. & Morrel-Samuels, P. (1993). Representational and conceptual skills of dolphins, In: Language and Communication: Comparative Perspectives, ed. H. R. Roitblat, L. M. Herman & P. Nachtigall. Erlbaum.

Herman, L. M., Richards, D. G. & Wolz, J. P. (1984) Comprehension of sentences by bottlenosed dolphins. Cognition 16:129-219.

Hess, J., Novak, M. A. & Povinelli, D. J. (1993) 'Natural pointing' in a rhesus monkey, but no evidence of empathy. Animal Behaviour, 46, 1023-1025.

Hewes, G. W. (1973a) An explicit formulation of the relationship between tool-using, tool-making and the emergence of language. Visible Language 7:101-127.

Hewes, G. W. (1973b) Primate communication and the gestural origin of language. Current Anthropology 14:5-24.

Heyes, C. M. (1987) Contrasting approaches to the legitimation of intentional language within comparative psychology. Behaviorism 15:41-50

Heyes, C. M. (1993) Anecdotes, training, trapping, and triangulating: Do animals attribute mental states? Animal Behaviour, 46, 177-188.

Heyes, C. M. (1994a) Imitation, culture and cognition. Animal Behaviour 46:999-1010.

Heyes, C. M. (1994b) Social cognition in primates. In: Animal Learning and Cognition, ed. N. J. Mackintosh. Academic Press.

Heyes, C. M. (1994c) Reflections on self-recognition in primates. Animal Behaviour 47:909-919.

Heyes, C. M. (1994d) Cues, convergence and a curmudgeon: a reply to Povinelli. Animal Behaviour, 48: 242-244.

Heyes, C. M. (1995a) Imitation and flattery: a reply to Byrne & Tomasello. Animal Behaviour, 50: 1421-1424.

Heyes, C. M. (1995b) Self-recognition in primates: Further reflections create a hall of mirrors. Animal Behaviour, 50: 1533-1542.

Heyes, C. M. (1995c) Self-recognition in primates: Irreverence, irrelevance and irony. Animal Behaviour, 51: 470-473.

Heyes, C. M. (1996) Genuine imitation. In: Social learning in animals: The roots of culture, eds. C. M. Heyes & B. G. Galef. Academic Press.

Heyes, C. M., Dawson, G. R. & Nokes, T. (1992) Imitation in rats: Initial responding and transfer evidence Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 45B:81-92.

Humphrey, N. K. (1976) The social function of intellect. In: Growing Points in Ethology, eds P. P. G. Bateson & R. A. Hinde. Cambridge University Press. Reprinted in Byrne, R. W. & Whiten, A. (1988) Machiavellian Intelligence, Clarendon Press.

Jolly, A. (1966) Lemur social behaviour and primate intelligence. Science 153:501-506.

Jolly, A. (1985) The evolution of primate behaviour. Macmillan.

Jolly, A. (1991) Conscious chimpanzees? A review of recent literature. In: Cognitive Ethology: The Minds of Other Animals, ed. C. R. Ristau. Erlbaum.

Khler, W. (1921/1927) Intelligenzprfungen auf Menschenaffen. Springer. English translation by E. Winter as The Mentality of Apes, 2nd Ed. Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Krebs, J. R. & Dawkins, R. (1984) Animal signals: Mind reading and manipulation. In: Behavioural Ecology, eds. J. R. Krebs & N. B. Davies. Blackwell Scientific Publications.

Kummer, H., Dasser, V. & Hoyningen-Huene, P. (1990) Exploring primate social cognition: some critical remarks. Behaviour 112:84-98.

Ledbetter, D. H. & Basen, J. A. (1982) Failure to demonstrate self-recognition in gorillas. American Journal of Primatology, 2:307-310.

Lin, A.C., Bard, K.A. & Anderson, J.R. (1992) Development of self-recognition in chimpanzees. Journal of Comparative Psychology 106:120-127.

Mason, W.A. & Hollis, J.H. (1962) Communication between young rhesus monkeys. Animal Behaviour 10:211-221.

Mignault, C. (1965) Transition between sensorimotor and symbolic activities in nursery-reared chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Human Evolution 14:747-758.

Nishida, T. (1986) Local traditions and cultural transmission. In: Primate Societies, eds. B.B. Smuts, D.L. Cheney, R.M. Seyfarth, R.W. Wrangham, & T.T. Struhsaker. University of Chicago Press.

Pepperberg, I. M. (1987). Interspecies communication: A tool for assessing conceptual abilities in the African Grey parrot. In: Cognition, Language and Consciousness: Interactive Levels, ed. G. Greenberg & E. Tobach. Erlbaum.

Pepperberg, I. M. 1991. Referential Communication with an African Grey Parrot. Harvard Graduate Society Newsletter, Spring, 1991.

Pepperberg, I. M. 1995. Studies to Determine the Intelligence of African Grey ParrotsProceedings of The International Aviculturists Society, January 11 - 15, 1995.

Pepperberg Homepage. Communication with Parrots (Gary Biggs).

Pereira Jr., A. 1999. A Possible Role for Action Schemes in Mirror Self-Recognition. Revista de Etologia, 1 (2), 127-139.

Place, Ullin T. (2000) The Role of the Hand in the Evolution of Language. Psycoloquy: 11: 007.

Platt, M. M. & Thompson, R. L. (1985) Mirror responses in Japanese macaque troop. Primates 26:300-314.

Povinelli, D. J. (1987) Monkeys, apes, mirrors and minds: The evolution of self-awareness in primates Human Evolution 2:493-509.

Povinelli, D. J. (1993) Reconstructing the evolution of mind. American Psychologist 48:493-509.

Povinelli, D. J. (1994) Comparative studies of animal mental state attribution: A reply to Heyes. Animal Behaviour, 48: 239-241.

Povinelli, D. J. (1995) Panmorphism. In: Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes and Animals, eds. R. Mitchell & N. Thompson. University of Nebraska Press.

Povinelli, D.J. 1998. Can animals empathize? Maybe not. Scientific American 9: 67-75.

Povinelli, D. J. & Davis, D. R. (1994). Differences between chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans (Homo sapiens) in the resting state of the finger: implications for pointing. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 108:134-139.

Povinelli, D. J. & Eddy, T. J. (1996) What young chimpanzees know about seeing. Monographs of the Society for Research on Child Development, No. 247, Vol. 61.

Povinelli, D. J., Nelson, K. E. & Boysen, S. T. (1990) Inferences about guessing and knowing by chimpanzees. Journal of Comparative Psychology 104:203-210.

Povinelli, D. J., Parks, K. A. & Novak, M. A. (1991) Do rhesus monkeys attribute knowledge and ignorance to others? Journal of Comparative Psychology 105:318-325.

Povinelli, D. J., Nelson, K. E. & Boysen, S. T. (1992a) Comprehension of role reversal in chimpanzees: evidence of empathy? Animal Behaviour 43:633-640.

Povinelli, D. J., Parks, K. A. & Novak, M. A. (1992b) Role reversal by rhesus monkeys, but no evidence of empathy. Animal Behaviour 43:269-281.

Povinelli, D. J., Rulf, A. B., Landau, K. R. & Bierschwale, D. T. (1993) Self-recognition in chimpanzees: Distribution, ontogeny, and patterns of emergence. Journal of Comparative Psychology 107:347-372.

Premack, D. (1983) Animal cognition. Annual Review of Psychology 34:351-362.

Premack, D. (1988) 'Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?' revisited. In: Machiavellian Intelligence: Social Expertise and the Evolution of Intellect in Monkeys, Apes and Humans, eds R. W. Byrne & A. Whiten. Oxford University Press.

Premack, D. & Dasser, V. (1991). Perceptual origins and conceptual evidence for theory of mind in apes and children. In: Natural Theories of Mind, ed. A. Whiten. Blackwell.

Premack, D. & Premack, A. J. (1982) The Mind of an Ape. Norton.

Premack, D. & Woodruff, G. (1978) Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4:515-526.

Regan, Tom & Singer, Peter. 1976. Animal Rights and Human Obligations. 2nd ed. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1989; 1st edition 1976

Robert, S. (1986) Ontogeny of mirror behavior in two species of great apes. American Journal of Primatology 10:109-117.

Roccos, Linda Jones. 1996. A Bibliographic Guide to the Study of Dolphin Intelligence

Russon, A. E. & Galdikas, B. M. F. (1993) Imitation in ex-captive orangutans. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 107: 147-161.

Savage-Rumbaugh, S., W. M. Fields and J. P. Taglialatela. 2001. Language, Speech, Tools, and Writing. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 8 (5-7): 273-92. Reprinted in Between Ourselves: Second-person issues in the study of consciousness,, E. Thompson (ed). Exeter: Imprint Academic, pp. 273-92.

Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S. (1986). Ape Language: From Conditioned Response to Symbol, Columbia University Press.

Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S., Murphy, J., Sevcik, R. A., Rumbaugh, D. M., Brakke, K. E., and S. Williams (in press). Language comprehension in ape and child. Monographs of the Society for Child Development.

Schusterman, R. J. & Gisiner, R. C. (1988) Artificial language comprehension in dolphins and sea lions: The essential cognitive skills. The Psvchological Record 38:311-348.

Schusterman, R. J. & Krieger, K. (1984) California sea lions are capable of semantic comprehension. The Psvchological Record 34:3-23.

Spence, K. W. (1937) Experimental studies of learning and higher mental processes in infra-human primates. Psychological Bulletin 34:806-850.

Stammbach, E. (1988) Group responses to specially skilled individuals in a Macaca fascicularis group. Behaviour 107:241-266.

Suarez, S. D. & Gallup, G. G. (1981) Self-recognition in chimpanzees and orangutans, but not gorillas. Journal of Human Evolution 10:175-188.

Suarez, S. D. & Gallup, G. G. (1986) Social responding to mirrors in rhesus macaques: Effects of changing mirror location. American Journal of Primatology 11:239-244.

Sumita, K., Kitahara-Frisch, J. & Norikoshi, K. (1985). The acquisition of stone-tool use in captive chimpanzees. Primates 26:168-181.

Swartz, K. B. & Evans, S. (1991) Not all chimpanzees show self-recognition. Primates, 32: 483-496.

Terrace, H. S., Petitto, L. A., Sanders, R. J. & Bever, T. G. (1979) Can an ape create a sentence? Science 206:891-902.

Timberlake, W. & Grant, D. L. (1975) Autoshaping in rats to the presentation of another rat predicting food. Science 190:690-692.

Thorndike, E. L. (1898) Animal intelligence: An experimental study of the associative processes in animals. Psychological Review Monographs, 2, No. 8.

Tinbergen, N. (1951) A Study of Instinct, Clarendon Press.

Tomasello, M. (1996) Do apes ape? In: Social learning: The Roots of Culture, eds C. M. Heyes and B. G. Galef. Academic Press.

Tomasello, M. & Call, J. (1994) Social cognition of monkeys and apes. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 37.

Tomasello, M., Davis-Dasilva, M., Camak, L. and Bard, K. (1987) Observational learning of tool-use by young chimpanzees. Human Evolution 2:175-183.

Tomasello, M., Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S., and A.C. Kruger (in press). Imitative learning of action on objects by children, chimpanzees, and educated chimpanzees. Monographs of the Society for Child Development.

Tomasello, M., Savage-Rumbaugh, S. & Kruger, A. C. (1993) Imitative learning of actions on objects by children, chimpanzees, and enculturated chimpanzees. Child Development 64:1688-1705.

Toth, N., Schick, K. D., Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S., and D.M Rumbaugh (in press). Pan the tool-maker: Investigations into the stone tool-making and tool using capabilities of a bonobo (Pan paniscus). Journal of Archaeological Sciences

Visalberghi, E. & Trinca, L. (1989) Tool use in capuchin monkeys, or distinguish between performing and understanding. Primates 30:511-521

Visalberghi, E. & Fragaszy, D. M. (1992) Do monkeys ape? In: 'Language' and intelligence in monkeys and apes, eds. S. T. Parker & K. R. Gibson. Cambridge University Press.

Waal, F. de (1982) Chimpanzee Politics. Jonathan Cape.

Waal, F. de (1991) Complementary methods and convergent evidence in the study of primate social cognition. Behaviour 118:297-320.

de Waal, F. 1996. Good Natured: The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

de Waal, F. 1998. Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex Among the Apes. Revised edition. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Westergaard, G.C. (1988) Lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) manufacture and use tools. Journal of Comparative Psychology 102:152-159.

Whiten, A. & Byrne, R. W. (1988) Tactical deception in primates, Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11:233-273.

Whiten, A. & Byrne, R. W. (1991) The emergence of metarepresentation in human ontogeny and primate phylogeny. In: Natural theories of mind, ed. A. Whiten. Basil Blackwell.

Whiten, A. & Custance, D. M. (1996) Studies of imitation in chimpanzees and children. In: Social learning in animals: The roots of culture, eds. C. M. Heyes & B. G. Galef. Academic Press.

Whiten, A., Custance, D. M., Teixidor, P. & Bard, K. A. (1997) Imitative learning of artificial fruit processing in children and chimpanzees. Journal of Comparative Psychology.

Wiley, Norbert. 1994. History of the Self: From Primates to Present. Sociological Perspectives , 37: 527-545.

Xitco, M. J. & Roitblat, H. R. (1996). Object recognition through eavesdropping: passive echolocation in bottlenose dolphins. Animal Learning and Behaviour 24:355-365.